These days, universities and colleges all over the world offer courses exclusively taught in English, making it easier for international students to enrol in study programmes abroad.
When you apply at a university, you will most likely need an English-language certificate, which proves you have enough knowledge to participate in classes and understand the textbooks and other study materials.
To pass an English test and obtain the language certificate, you’ll need to invest a lot of time and effort, depending on your current English level. That’s why you should start preparing and practising as soon as possible and take the English exam early on, so you won’t miss the university application deadlines.
Below, we’ll go through some of the general information about the English language certificates that are widely accepted around the world. This will help you understand their structure and grades better, and you’ll be able to decide which exam to take before studying abroad (if your university accepts more than one exam).
The Common European Framework (CEFR) divides learners into six different levels:
A Basic Speaker
- A1 Breakthrough or beginner
- A2 Waystage or elementary
B Independent Speaker
- B1 Threshold or intermediate
- B2 Vantage or upper intermediate
C Proficient Speaker
- C1 Effective Operational Proficiency or advanced
- C2 Mastery or proficiency
For each level, there is a description of what the learner must be able to do in terms of reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Those descriptions apply to any language. Usually, the expected level for study programmes in most countries is around B. However, certain academic institutions or programmes (e.g. English literature) might require a higher level.
Most universities and colleges usually list the minimum English test score on their website or study pages. Always check what English test you need to pass and with what score to avoid having problems with your application later.
English is the most popular language of instruction. Even for internationally oriented national programmes, a certificate might be needed to prove you have good enough English skills for English-taught courses. The certificates listed below are the most popular ones used in the academic field.
1. Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL®)
TOEFL® is a very popular English certificate around the world. In most cases, it is offered as an internet-based test (TOEFL® iBT), but there is also a paper-based test offered only in locations without an internet connection.
TOEFL® iBT takes 3 hours to complete. The TOEFL® paper-delivered test only takes 2 hours and 25 minutes because it doesn’t include the Speaking part (answers cannot be recorded without a microphone and an internet connection).
TOEFL® iBT has 4 parts. Each part is graded with up to 30 points, which adds up to a maximum score of 120 points:
During the entire test, you are interacting with a computer. In the first two parts, you read texts and listen to recordings about various topics and answer multiple-choice questions about the content later.
For the speaking part, your spoken answers are recorded, sent to an online scoring network and evaluated by three to six raters. The written part is evaluated by this online scoring network as well.
The most common score required by universities is 70-90 (B1/B2). Some universities also require minimum scores in some of the 4 test parts. Prices for TOEFL® iBT vary a lot depending on the country and the test centre where you take the exam. For example, it costs 205 USD in the US and 255 USD in Germany.
The TOEFL certificate is valid for two years.
2. International English Language Testing System (IELTS)
IELTS offers an academic version of their test, designed for academic and professional environments. Like TOEFL®, IELTS is one of the most popular English language tests in the world. IELTS is also accepted as language proof for certain work permits, as well as for immigration. IELTS Academic has 4 parts or sections:
- Academic Reading
- Academic Writing
They add up to a test duration of around 2 hours and 45 minutes. IELTS Academic is available both online and paper-based. For both versions, the Speaking part is face-to-face with a certified examiner.
IELTS test results use a 1 - 9 scale. Common scores required to be admitted for English programmes usually range between 5.5 to 6.5. Like TOEFL®, IELTS prices vary from one country to another. For example, IELTS Academic costs between 215 – 240 USD in the US and between 331 – 337 USD in Norway.
The IELTS certificate is valid for two years.
3. Cambridge English Qualifications
Cambridge English Language Assessment (formerly the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations) is a non-profit organisation offering English language certificates for different language levels. They offer many types of exams, but the most popular ones are:
- The B2 First (formerly known as First Certificate in English - FCE) is about the same level as the common scores for the TOEFL® test (B1 - B2) and IELTS 5.5 - 6.5. It takes around 3 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
- The C1 Advanced (formerly known as Certificate in Advanced English - CAE) is oriented at the high C1-C2 levels (comparable to IELTS 6.5 – 8.0) and is accepted by many British universities and over 9,000 educational institutions and businesses worldwide. It takes around 4 hours to complete.
- The C2 Proficiency (formerly known as Certificate of Proficiency in English - CPE) is the most advanced exam, ranked at C2 level which is well above the maximum scale of the TOEFL® test and similar to an 8.5 and above in the IELTS test. It takes around 4 hours to complete.
All 3 English exams (B2 First, C1 Advanced, C2 Proficiency) are divided into 4 parts:
- Reading and Use of English
Cambridge certificates are mainly used in the UK, but they are also accepted by many universities and colleges worldwide. Still, they are not as popular as TOEFL® and IELTS.
Unlike other certificates, Cambridge qualifications do not have an expiry date. However, universities and other organisations can choose if they accept results older than 2-3 years.
If you can prove you’ve been practising or using English in the years after passing your exam, you might be on the safe side. But if you passed a Cambridge exam 5 years ago and then only used English occasionally, you should not expect any institution to accept your certificate.
4. Pearson English Language Test (PTE Academic)
The PTE Academic test has grown a lot in terms of popularity; an increasing number of universities accept it as relevant proof of English knowledge from aspiring international students. Unlike TOEFL® iBT, IELTS Academic, and the Cambridge exams, which have 4 parts, the PTE test is divided into 3 sections:
- Speaking and Writing
The PTE Academic test takes 3 hours to complete, and it is only available in a computer-based/online format. Grades range between 10 – 90, using the Global Scale of English. Most universities and colleges have minimum scores of 50 – 60. In terms of pricing, we encounter a similar story. They vary depending on the country where you take the exam. For example, PTE costs 200 USD in the US and 246 USD in Australia.
The PTE certificate is valid for two years.
Read more about IELTS vs TOEFL vs PTE.
5. Other certificates
Besides the certificates mentioned above, there are other English language tests you can look at. They may be less popular, but they are accepted by various academic institutions, businesses, and governments:
- Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC)
- Business English Certificate (BEC)
- Integrated Skills in English exams (ISE)